Treatment options

Explaining & treating infertility

Are you struggling to fall pregnant? We investigate infertility and see what can be done to help


Explaining & treating infertility

Infertility is defined as the failure to conceive after 12 months of unprotected sex between two people of childbearing age.

Women over the age of 35 are advised to seek treatment after 6 months of trying as fertility decreases rapidly after this age due to the aging of the ovaries. Inability to carry a foetus to term may also require fertility treatment.

Infertility is fairly common, occurring in 10% to 15% of couples. Statistically the cause lies with the man in 40% of cases, the women in 40% of cases and with both partners in 20% of cases. In a few cases the cause is defined as “idiopathic,” meaning unexplained.

Many cases of apparent infertility can be easily treated resulting in a healthy pregnancy, while others may require more extensive treatment such as in vitro fertilisation or surgery. In about 20% of cases no pregnancy can be achieved, although success rates often depend on age (older women have a lower success rate).

People often believe that stress causes infertility and that if they “relax and forget about it” they will fall pregnant. While stress certainly doesn’t help, infertility is not your fault and is usually a medical problem requiring appropriate treatment.

The starting point is a comprehensive fertility investigation to determine whether the cause is:

  • A semen problem
  • An ovulation problem
  • A fertilisation problem (egg and sperm failing to unite)
  • An implantation problem

The most common causes

Male partner

  • Low sperm count and/or motility (movement) and/or abnormal morphology (size and shape)
  • Varicoceles, which are abnormally dilated veins along spermatic cord
  • Damaged or blocked sperm ducts
  • Hormonal imbalance
  • Some men have antibodies to their own sperm, while some women have antibodies to their partner’s sperm
  • Testicular failure due to STDs, trauma, surgery, tumours or drugs

Female partner

  • Anovulation (failure to ovulate, i.e. release eggs) due to hormonal imbalance, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) or sometimes sue to diet or body weight (anorexia or obesity)
  • Blockage or scarring of the fallopian tubes, usually after a pelvic infection or sexually transmitted disease (STD)
  • Endometriosis, in which the lining of the womb grows outside the uterus, affecting fertility
  • Abnormality of the uterus, such as fibroid tumours, scarring due to surgery or trauma or congenital abnormality
  • Poor ovarian function due to advanced age or premature ovarian failure; and
  • Problems with the cervix

The fertility investigation will include:

  • Semen analysis for the male partner
  • Routine blood tests to screen out conditions such as HIV, as well as underlying problems such as thyroid function, as well as to determine hormone levels
  • An internal examination and ultrasound for the woman to examine the uterus and ovaries

Several tests can be done to determine whether ovulation is the problem, including urine and blood tests. These include urine and blood tests.

Depending on the findings, further investigation may include procedures such as:

  • Hysteroscopy (where a thin telescope is inserted into the uterus through the cervix)
  • Laparoscopy (a scope introduced through a small incision in the abdomen) to investigate the uterine cavity, ovaries and fallopian tubes.

A fresh sperm sample, probably produced at the fertility clinic’s rooms or lab, would be required for sperm analysis to test for sperm motility (movement) and morphology (shape and size).

Depending on the cause, treatment options include:

  • Ovulation induction and timed intercourse
  • Artificial insemination (AI) after sperm wash and stimulating ovulation
  • Artificial insemination (AI) with donor sperm
  • In vitro fertilisation (IVF) in which fertilised embryos are implanted in the womb
  • Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in which the single best available sperm cell is injected directly into the egg
  • Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) where genetic abnormalities are screened out before implantation
Disclaimer: The advice on this site is for information purposes only. Please consult your health professional.

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Comments - 9 comments


Want to become pregnant but is not possible for me i am 42 years old with a husband of 47. Can u please help me. Could you please help me.
Posted on Sun, Mar 23rd 2014, 18:04

Mk Cyber Monday

Coach Cyber Monday Mk Cyber Monday
Posted on Sat, Nov 30th 2013, 21:03


hello all me and mu husband have been ttc for 3 1/2years now and i was diagnosed with PCOS in 2009.i had a HSG done and in jan 28th 2010 i had a hysteroscopy with removal of polyps done and all was clear.was told i needed to lose weight in order to make the process a success so i lost 56 pounds.every month i sometimes need help with my period by using Provera and this month it came on by its self.we did 5 rounds of clomid and all failed,so we tried Femara 2.5mg july 5th thru 9th pill form and by my temps i can see i didnt my RE said to keep charting my temps and by september 8th 2011 if no period to take a PG test and call her with results.i keep thinking is it possible i can get pregnant and why its taking so long?
Posted on Fri, Aug 12th 2011, 23:10


Is it possible to reverse man fertilization after 7years? Please help
Posted on Sun, Dec 19th 2010, 23:58

Leisha Manick

Hi I know that Ayurvedic treatment is very effective. It takes a little longer to address and cure the problem at hand but it certainly works and has NO negative said effects. All the best ladies
Posted on Tue, Aug 3rd 2010, 13:37


my husband and i have been trying to have a baby for past 2 years,we found out that i've got PCOS,i dont know what to do as we tried everything.please help
Posted on Mon, Aug 2nd 2010, 21:00

susan mmatli

my husband and i have been trying to have a baby for two year now,we went for some test and found out i have ovulation problem,please help
Posted on Mon, Aug 2nd 2010, 02:22


Does HIV reduces the fertility rate in women?
Posted on Wed, Jul 28th 2010, 15:27

tumi mosiane

my husband and i have been trying to have a baby for three years now. we found that i have an ovulation problem how do we fix this
Posted on Thu, May 13th 2010, 23:10

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